Gelatin is the product of partially hydrolyzed collagen. Collagen molecules are spiral bodies formed by three polypeptide chains intertwined with each other. Through the processing of the process, the collagen molecule spirochetes are denatured and decomposed into a single polypeptide chain (α-chain) α-component and a two-chain β-group It divides the γ-component composed of three α chains, and the molecular chain fragments between and smaller than the α-component or larger than the γ-component.
Application of gelatin in food
According to reports, more than 60% of the world's gelatin is used in the food and confectionery industry. In the production of confectionery, gelatin is used to produce toffee, egg whites, marshmallows, marshmallows, crystal flowers, gummies, and other soft candy. Gelatin has the function of absorbing water and supporting the skeleton. After dissolved in water, gelatin particles can attract and interweave each other to form a network structure of stacked layers, and condense as the temperature drops, so that sugar and water are completely filled in the gel voids, So that the soft candy can maintain a stable shape, even if it bears a large load, it will not deform. The general dosage of gelatin in candy is 5% ～ 10%.
- The effect is best when the amount of gelatin used in crystal flower gum is 6%.
- The amount of gelatin added in the gum is 6.7%.
- 0.6% to 3% or more in nougat.
- Adding 1.5% to 9% of the concentrated syrup of candy mucus, the ingredients of sugar lozenges or date candy are required to contain gelatin 2% to 7%.
In the production of confectionery, gelatin is more elastic, tough, and transparent than starch and agar. Especially when producing soft candy and toffee with sufficient elasticity and full shape, high-quality gelatin with high gel strength is required.
Frozen food improver
In frozen foods, gelatin can be used as a jelly agent. Gelatin jelly has a low melting point, is easily soluble in hot water, and has the characteristics of the instant entrance. It is often used to make meal jelly and food jelly. Gelatin can also be used to make jelly. Gelatin jelly does not crystallize in warm syrup that has not been melted. Warm jelly can be re-formed after the clot is crushed.
As a stabilizer, gelatin can be used in the production of ice cream, ice cream, etc. The role of gelatin in ice cream is to prevent the formation of coarse-grained ice crystals, keep the tissue delicate, and reduce the melting speed. In order to obtain excellent ice cream, the content of gelatin must be appropriate. The general dosage of gelatin in ice cream is 0.25% ～ 0.6%.
Gelatin is added to meat products as a jelly agent for the production of fragrant wild pork, meat jelly, canned ham, spaghetti, veal, ham pies, canned meat and Zhenjiang cuisine meat, etc. quality.
Gelatin can also act as an emulsifier for some meat products, such as emulsifying the fat of meat sauce and cream soup, and protect the original characteristics of the product. In canned foods, gelatin can also be used as a thickener, often adding powdered gelatin, or a thick jelly made up of one part gelatin and two parts water.
Gelatin can be used as a clarifying agent in the production of beer, fruit wine, liqueur, fruit juice, rice wine, almond milk beverage, and other products. Its mechanism of action is that gelatin can form flocculent precipitates with tannin. After standing, the flocculent colloidal particles can be adsorbed, coagulated and clumped together with turbidity, and then precipitated by filtration, and then removed by filtration.
For different beverages, gelatin can be used with different substances as needed to achieve different results.
- In the production process of mulberry juice, gelatin needs to act as a clarifier together with tannin and silica gel.
- For the almond milk beverage, gelatin can be used as a compound thickener together with sodium alginate to make a milk beverage with unique flavor and excellent taste. For different beverages, the amount of gelatin added is also different.
- In fruit juice drinks, the amount of gelatin added is 2% to 3%. When clarifying bayberry juice, an aqueous solution containing 1% gelatin is used.
- What is used in beer clarification is an aqueous solution containing 0.5% gelatin. The amount of gelatin used in clarified wine is 0.1 ~ 0.3 g / L.
- During the preparation of black tea, the combined action of gelatin and silica gel can prevent black tea beverages from becoming cloudy due to long-term storage.
- In the preparation process of green tea, after being treated with a mixture of gelatin and vinylpyrrolidone, green tea cold drink can obtain good palatability.
Food coating materials
In recent years, countries such as Japan have used gelatin for food coatings. Coating gelatin on the surface of food has the following advantages:
- (1) When two different foods are combined together, coating gelatin can inhibit browning reaction.
- (2) To prevent moisture absorption and stiffness of food, coating edible gelatin on the surface of powdered and granular sugars can prevent the moisture absorption of sugars and avoid agglomeration
- (3) It can make the surface of the food shiny and improve the quality of the food.
- (4) It can prevent food spoilage and oxidation. The coating made of gelatin with a concentration of 10% to 15% is suitable for ham, cured meat, sausage and cheese, etc. It can prevent food spoilage and prolong food preservation.
- (5) Gelatin is used as a stabilizer to prevent shrinkage and deformation of the product.
- (6) Fresh-keeping effect, add gelatin solution in the sugar liquid of soaked fruits and vegetables to form a film on the surface of fruits and vegetables, which can ensure the freshness and natural flavor of the food.
In food production, gelatin can also be used to make cakes and various icings. Due to the stability of gelatin, this sugar coating will not penetrate into the cake when the liquid phase increases even on hot days, and it can also control the size of sugar crystals.
Gelatin can also be used to make colored beads for colored beads ice cream, sugar-free cans, etc.
In food packaging, gelatin can be synthesized into gelatin film. Gelatin film is also called edible packaging film and biodegradable film. It has been proved that the gelatin film has good tensile strength, heat sealability, high gas barrier, oil and moisture resistance.